За последние 12 лет компания Gallup создала базу данных удовлетворенности 17 миллионов служащих. База данных охватывает все отрасли экономики, сегменты рынка и имеет широчайшую географию. И что более важно, она отражает человеческую натуру, показывая, что мотивирует людей, какие выгоды для них наиболее существенны. Во многих докладах компания Gallup ,основываясь на этой базе данных, пытается ответить на вечный вопрос, что первично курица или яйцо: "Приводит ли высокая удовлетворенность работников фирмы к ее высокой доходности или наоборот?" Чтобы узнать об этом подробнее, журнал Consulting взял интервью у Джима Хартера, ведущего исследователя проблем удовлетворенности работников и их благосостояния компании Gallup.
During the last 12 years, Gallup has built a database of employee satisfaction from 17 million participants. A database that large cuts across every industry, geography and market segment. More importantly, it cuts to the heart of human nature, providing insight into what motivates people and profits. In a recent report based on that database, Gallup provides information to answer an age-old chicken and egg question: Does higher job satisfaction drive firm profitability, or the other way around? To learn more, Consulting's One-on-One sat down with Jim Harter, Gallup's chief scientist for workplace and wellbeing research.
Consulting: What is the financial impact
of employee engagement?
Harter: Our research found that for those companies whose employees' overall job satisfaction is in the top quartile, their profitability is 16 percent higher than those in the bottom quartile. That usually amounts to between one and four percentage points in margin.
Consulting: What's the connection between employee engagement and profit?
Hartner: A more engaged workforce doesn't directly cause higher profits. However, high morale does bolster all of the discretionary things, such as getting something extra for a customer, staying up late for a client, or spending more time at the office when needed, because it's an environment where people want to be. When employees are more involved, and when they have a more emotional connection to their job, they produce higher quality work. They have more esteem about the work they do because they know it's important.
Consulting: What's the first thing firms should do to foster employee engagement?
Harter: People tend to be excited about their job when they start. But we found that at about the six-month mark, employees can start to become disenchanted if they aren't treated well. The vast majority of new workers start a new job wanting to make a difference, but if they don't see an opportunity to be valued, the organization begins to lose credibility in their eyes. The message seems to be, 'if they don't care about me, why should I care about the quality of work I produce?'
Consulting: How do you know engagement drives profitability and not the other way around?
Harter: The truth is that the arrow goes both ways. But when we look at causality, the arrow is stronger in the connections between employee engagement and profit, rather than in reverse. At the most basic level, we asked employees: 'Do you get to do what you do best everyday?' Part of that is influenced by whom the firm hires around you, but it's also influenced by how employees make the day-to-day modifications and how management leverages those talents.
Consulting: What other findings surprised you?
Harter: We found that only half of all employees say that they 'know what's expected of them at work.' We also found an alarmingly high share of employees who say that they don't have the materials or equipment necessary to do their job right. We found that many managers, by and large, think that all employees are the same. They tend to think that if you put the same processes in place across a business line, all employees will do their jobs. But what we found is that when job expectations and roles aren't customized enough, businesses miss out on a lot of individual performance.
Consulting: Your data has been compiled over 12 years, during which there have been several economic cycles. What should managers know during a recovery about employee engagement?
Harter: Rarely does someone make a decision to stay or leave a job based on a single event. Usually, there is what we call 'formative conditions' that build up over time that can lead to someone being disenchanted or being very loyal. In a down economy, some of the frustrations can build up but go unnoticed because of the limited job opportunities. In a recovery, when employees have an opportunity to work elsewhere, those that are disengaged are far more likely to consider their choices.