Sangeeta Badal и Joseph H. Streur важные люди из известного Вам института Гэллапа создали профиль предпринимателя, сопоставив результаты многих тысяч интервью и проведя опросы и обобщив множество важных характеристик.
Мне интересным показался момент перехода от автократического управления стартапом к децентрализации управления по мере взросления бизнеса. Что же должно произойти с нашим предпринимателем такого волшебного, чтобы так изменить свою модель поведения? Или единственный удел стартапера уйти делать новый стартап?
The process of identifying specific traits of an entrepreneur starts with an understanding of what successful entrepreneurs do – activities they engage in to drive new venture creation or business growth. Focusing on the ‘task’ or the ‘process of entrepreneurship’ helps in identification of innate talents that are most relevant to the task.
The Process of Entrepreneurship
Existing models of entrepreneurial process propose a standard sequence of events, starting with opportunity recognition, resource acquisition, venture creation, and finally firm expansion and growth. Gallup has identified two developmental phases in the life-cycle of adventure (Figure 1): early/new business stage (entrepreneurial start-up, firm age <3 years) and formalized/structured stage (entrepreneurial stability, firm age beyond 3 years) based on focus groups with highly successful entrepreneurs, and stakeholder interviews with business mentors, economic development agency staff, and government officials involved in supporting and facilitating entrepreneurship. The focus groups and stakeholder interviews yielded a wealth of information about- a) the ‘tasks’ or the ‘demands’ of the role in each phase, b) the attitudes and behavioral responses of highly successful entrepreneurs to these demands, and c) the underlying traits that enable these behaviors.
The phases are delineated on the basis of specific tasks that the entrepreneur needs to perform to be successful in that phase. For instance, in the early phase of firm formation, the entrepreneur needs to have the competence to perform multiple roles, have the ability to live with ambiguity, be able to develop an overall strategy for the firm. In the more established phase there is a shift in focus from high creativity, ideation, and basic planning to management of a more mature company with a larger workforce. This phase requires the entrepreneur to delegate power and take a team-based approach to running the company. Though there are distinct demands of each phase of the entrepreneurial process, many of the activities performed in the early stage continue to be important for the subsequent phases. For instance, cultivating relationships is critical to access resources to start a venture, but successful entrepreneurs need to continuously build relationships in the later phase to further their business goals. The relative significance of each demand may vary from one phase to the other, but many times there is a carry-over effect from one phase to the other.
Based on the “job analysis” of the entrepreneur described above, the list of activities that successful entrepreneurs perform in both phases was distilled into 10 job functional demands. These demands produced high relationship with both business creation and business success and encapsulate the ‘task’ of entrepreneurship. They also measure an individual’s ability to perform in the role of an entrepreneur.
The 10 Functional Demands
The 10 functional demands of entrepreneurship (FDE) describe the specific requirements of entrepreneurism made upon the entrepreneur. In other words, they describe what an individual needs to do, to be a successful entrepreneur. An individual’s inherent talent and acquired ability (skills, knowledge, and experience) will influence how successfully and by what means one responds to the demands of the role.
Figure 2 lists the demands of the role which logically require a behavioral response from the entrepreneur. Appropriate behavioral response is enabled by the individual dispositions/traits. Usually, more prevalent the trait, higher the likelihood that the demand will be met, resulting in better performance in the role.
The demands can be used to create a roadmap of activities or tasks that the entrepreneur has to perform to develop and grow his/her venture. Different entrepreneurs bring different strengths to the table—some may be highly creative and competent, but low on focus and relationship building. Others may be astute business thinkers but have issues with delegation. Many times the gaps in ability to meet a certain demand can be filled by acquiring skills or knowledge or establishing complimentary partnerships with others who bring another set of talents to the table, thus meeting the demand of the role.
Linkage to Performance
Entrepreneurial activities in response to the demands discussed aeove will lead to varying degrees of entrepreneurial success. Entrepreneurs with the inherent ability to meet the demands of the role will be able to create a sustainable and successful venture than those with less ability to meet these demands. Gallup research indicates that the personality of the entrepreneur has a direct relationship with business success in companies that have less than 30 employees. In micro and small environments the entrepreneur directly manages almost all aspects of the business singlehandedly. His/her decisions and actions have a direct impact on the future of the venture (Rauch and Frese 2007). As the size of the company increases to more than 50 employees, this relationship becomes weaker and may need additional moderators to explain the relationship between entrepreneurial personality and business success.
Gallup research found that the personality of the entrepreneur affects his/her ability to develop strategies and manifest behaviors that lead to business growth. This is specifically true for micro and small businesses, where the individual business owner has a direct and tangible influence on the environment of the firm. For instance, an entrepreneur with high levels of self-awareness and self-reliance (defined by a high score on Know your personal brand and Be self-reliant respectively) is able to articulate the competitive advantage of his/her firm in the marketplace and align employee activities with their individual strengths, thus, leading to business growth. Similarly, entrepreneurs with an innate ability to tolerate risk and take on challenges (high score on Take on Challenges) are able to create an environment of customer orientation in their firms. They easily establish emotional connection with the customers, are more likely to understand what the customers need, share new ideas with the customers, and more likely to exceed customer expectations, compared to entrepreneurs with low risk-tolerance. Entrepreneurs who are natural advocates for their business (high score on Promote the Business) are able to communicate a clear and consistent vision of the company to the employees and clients, as well as have a clear growth strategy which, in turn, affects business growth. Profit-oriented entrepreneurs (high score on Focus on business outcomes) are able to leverage employee engagement to drive business results. They invest a lot of time planning growth strategies and have an innate ability to align employee responsibilities with company goals, thus accelerating the growth of the firm. Entrepreneurs who are natural at building relationships (high score on Build Relationships) use their talents to access resources, internally and externally, to grow their business. They know how to align the strengths of their employees to their role thus building employee engagement and understand the needs of their customers thus building customer engagement.
As described above, each demand meets a different need of the entrepreneurial process. Gallup research indicates that entrepreneurs who meet six or more demands at a high level are more likely to exhibit behaviors that impact the environment in their firms that, in turn, leads to business success. These entrepreneurs have a clear vision of where they want to be, are goal oriented, measure all aspects of their business performance, are more likely to align employee activities to employee strengths, create emotional engagement with customers and employees, and are more growth oriented than entrepreneurs who meet only one or two demands of the role at a high level.
Gallup research indicates that a small group of individuals have the innate ability that can lead to extraordinary success in the role – high business growth and ultimately job creation. These entrepreneurs are able to meet at least 9 out of the 10 demands of the role, are more likely to meet their profit and sales goals year over year, create high growth enterprises, and in the process, are likely to create disproportionately more jobs than many with moderate or low talent for meeting the demands of entrepreneurship. According to Gallup research, only 5% of all entrepreneurs can be identified as elite performers. It is important to identify this small cohort of top talent and then allocate appropriate financial and non-financial resources to increase the probability of extraordinary performance (O’Boyle Jr. and Aguinis, 2012). This does not mean that those with moderate to low talent levels should not be supported. Supporting the moderately or less talented will also yield positive results, but as decades of Gallup research has proven that trying to succeed in an area in which one has less talent will take much more work and might still result in only average performance (Clifton & Nelson, 1992). Thus, practitioners and policy-makers should identify the vital few that have the potential for extraordinary performance and provide the right environment to support and foster their growth.
*все права принадлежат авторам, источник статьи находится по ссылке